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W.T. Stead & the Titanic

According to folklore, Stead had foreseen his death on the Titanic decades earlier, as suggested in his two fictional "sinking" stories, How the Mail Steamer went Down in Mid Atlantic (1886) and From the Old World to the New (1892). When the ship began to sink, rather than try to save himself, he instead spent his last two hours on earth quietly reading a book in the first class smoking room. Yet, despite widespread belief in this (almost certainly fictional) account of Stead's final hours, its only written source seems to be Walter Lord's quintessential retelling of the Titanic tragedy, A Night to Remember, published in 1956 and made into a film of the same name in 1958. Lord attributes his description of Stead to survivor George Kemish, a fire stoker, who escaped the stricken vessel in lifeboat no. 9. Kemish's story was probably inspired by later press reports of Stead's apparent predictions, for, not only does it fly in the face of every contemporary account of Stead's character, but it also contradicts far more credible sightings of him both during and immediately after the sinking. Survivor, Mrs. William Shelley, for instance, said that Stead attracted attention "even in that awful hour, on account of [his] superhuman composure and divine work", and when he "could do no more, he stood alone at the edge of the deck" in a "prayerful attitude of profound meditation." A later sighting, by survivor Philip Mock, has Stead clinging to a raft with Col. John Jacob Astor. "Their feet became frozen," recalled Mock, "and they were compelled to release their hold. Both were drowned.". Yet, despite such highly credible accounts, it is Lord's fatalistic portrayal of Stead, gallantly going down with the ship, that endures to this day. Friends and colleagues who lived long enough to see the film, A Night to Remember, undoubtedly took comfort from this portrayal because it represented Stead as being fearless in death as he had been in life. Spiritualists likewise seized on the smoking room scene because it fulfilled their image of Stead as a gifted precognitive fatalist, bravely facing his own foreseen end. Sadly, modern researchers have done little to dispel this myth, with several modern works, including the Channel 4 documentary, Victorians Uncovered: The Virgin Trade (2002) still perpetuating the smoking room story. Fortunately, serious historians need only glance at Stead's own expectations of his final voyage, as recorded by him in the Review of Reviews, to see that his supposed insight into his own death has no basis in fact whatsoever: "I expect to leave by the on April 10th and hope I shall be back in London in May."

© Owen Mulpetre 2012

Tributes

E.T. Cook on the Death of W T Stead (Contemporary Review, 1912)
Henry Scott Holland on the Death of W T Stead (Contemporary Review, 1912)
Millicent Garrett Fawcett on the Death of W T Stead (Contemporary Review, 1912)
W T Stead - the Loss of a True Friend by Bramwell Booth (War Cry, April 27, 1912)

Press Reports

William T. Stead: Editor, Reformer (The Gleaner, April 25, 1912)
W. T. Stead. A London Memorial. Journalists' Tributes (The Times, July 6, 1920)
Stead and Astor Cling to Raft (Worcester Telegram, April 20, 1912)
William T. Stead - English Editor and "Author of If Christ Came to Chicago" (NY Times, April 16, 1912)
Stead Prophesied a Violent Death (NY Times, April 23, 1912)
Mr. W. T. Stead: Ex-Editor of the Northern Echo (The Northern Echo, April 17, 1912)
The Sinking of the Titanic: Mr. W. T. Stead's Career. (The Times, April 18, 1912)
Story Mr. Stead Could have Told (The Daily Mirror, April 18, 1912)
Fate of Mr. W. T. Stead (The Daily Mirror, April 20, 1912)
Memorial Service for Mr. Stead (The Times, April 26, 1912)
Stead's Brother Indignant (The Providence Journal, April 20, 1912)
Mr. Stead's Will (The Times, June 11, 1912)

Miscellanea

Letter from Stead to Mr. R. Penny (April 19, 1912 )
Letter from Stead to the editor of the American Review of Reviews (April, 1912 )
Telegram from Edith Harper April 18, 1912 (awaiting news after Titanic tragedy)

Related Items

From the Old World to the New by W. T. Stead (Review of Reviews, December, 1892)
How the Mail Steamer went Down in Mid Atlantic (March 22, 1886)
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